What Your Child Should Know by the End of Kindergarten

Just a short while ago, you may have been walking your child to kindergarten for their inaugural day – now they are almost completed with kindergarten and eager to move onto first grade!

Though five and six year-olds may not be expected to recite the alphabet or recognize sight words, they should at least understand all lower case letters and their respective sounds, including knowing how to write their names and comprehending number cardinality.

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One of the main goals of kindergarten is to develop children’s math skills, according to the NBC News website. Children also learn problem-solving strategies by breaking problems down into manageable pieces and finding solutions, an invaluable skill that will aid them later in life when dealing with challenging teachers or losing a soccer match.

Kindergarteners will hone their fundamental number skills, including counting objects and understanding numbers. They’ll discover that numbers serve to represent how many things exist within our world and begin to recognize that some numbers are larger than others (ie 3 is larger than 2). Kindergarteners should also be able to recognize basic geometric shapes like circles and squares.

Children will learn to group, sort and classify objects. For instance, they might arrange their stuffed animals into groups by size or color or sort board games and toys from tallest to shortest – an essential step toward understanding relationships among things being measured or compared.

Kindergartners will also learn the fundamentals of time, such as days and times of the week and what time of day it is at various points (morning, noon, night). This concept helps kids understand how long things take and that there are certain intervals we are expected to follow such as mealtimes or bedtime.

Once enrolled in kindergarten, your child will also learn terminology such as below, above, in front of and behind to describe positions. At home you can reinforce this concept by reading books together or using vocabulary when giving directions like “put your shoes in the basket” or “stand behind Ida.” They’ll also begin to recognize and write all 26 letters of the alphabet both uppercase and lowercase as well as 30 high frequency words known as sight words such as and, the, and in.


By the end of kindergarten, children should know most letters (uppercase and lowercase) of the alphabet as well as their sounds. Furthermore, kindergarteners should recognize and read approximately 30 high-frequency words known as sight words; such as the, in, and of. Sight words appear frequently in stories and on billboards/signs/computer screens and should become automatic for kindergarteners.

Kids should learn to identify and sort objects according to color, shape and size, which will assist them with studying science, social studies and math. At home they can practice this skill by sorting toys by color size type as well as recognizing common shapes like circles squares and triangles.

Kindergarteners will begin learning to count by ones and tens, as well as understanding that larger numbers such as seven are composed of smaller ones such as four and three. This will prepare them for addition and subtraction lessons in first grade.

Children entering kindergarten should also have an ability to read a calendar and identify what day of the week it is, identify body parts and understand basic weather conditions.

Children at this level should be able to follow simple spoken or oral directions, such as going to the shelf and picking out a book or turning around to face front and sitting on a rug. Furthermore, they will be able to recognize characters in stories they’ve heard while recalling key points about those tales.

Kindergarten is also when children begin their journey of discovery of the world through simple scientific experiments and observations. Children learn school rules and regulations while sharing feelings, needs and interests with other children their age. Furthermore, kindergarten helps children play well together with peers of their own age while learning how to take turns when playing games.


Kindergarteners learn the alphabet and letter sounds, how to form simple word shapes, how to use a pencil correctly and retell stories they have heard read aloud. By the end of kindergarten, children should be able to write their first and last name along with simple sentences in both uppercase and lowercase letterforms; know their relationship between letters and their sounds they create, recognize high frequency words like “the”, “what”, and “and”.

Kindergarteners will gain a basic understanding of addition and subtraction up to number ten, which helps them recognize that larger numbers comprise of smaller ones (for instance 7 is comprised of four and three). Teachers will encourage kindergarteners’ curiosity by providing hands-on activities designed to expose them to plants, animals and the environment.

Kindergartners begin learning the skills required to follow two and three-step directions while working cooperatively with students their age, both at school, in extracurricular activities and playdates. Furthermore, this skill will come in handy as they spend many hours around their peers at this age group! Besides learning these important life skills, kindergarten students also must become adept at using words appropriately while sharing and taking turns, which can sometimes prove challenging at this age.

Kindergarteners learn to respect themselves and others while staying safe in their environment, which helps build self-assured independence that will contribute to furthering their personal growth as individuals.

One of the key skills your child will acquire during kindergarten is how to focus and concentrate for extended periods. While this concept may be hard for young children under six to grasp, you can develop this skill at home with practice at home – for instance when they’re playing in their backyard, ask them to focus and listen for 20 minutes while you read a storybook aloud before discussing its content afterwards. Do this every day for one month to watch their concentration develop!

Social Skills

An early school-age child must possess social skills that enable him to interact positively with his peers, sharing toys with fellow pupils while cooperating during games or school projects, listening and following simple spoken instructions from adults, etc.

He should learn to express himself using words, and recognize that using physical force, screaming or threats as methods to get what he wants are inappropriate ways of getting it. Furthermore, they must work cooperatively with friends during play time, as actions taken by one may affect another person.

At this age, children should be able to identify the day and month as well as understand seasons and weather patterns. Furthermore, they should be able to read clocks with accuracy (to the nearest half or quarter hour), recognize daily events such as breakfast lunch dinner and bedtime as well as identify everyday items like books or puzzles from shelves in stores or classrooms.

Students should know the difference between uppercase and lowercase letters and be able to print both their first name as well as family names with ease. Furthermore, they should recognize high frequency sight words such as the, of and in.

By the end of kindergarten, children should be able to classify objects by color, shape and size; use a calendar; read and write numbers up through 30; recognize simple addition and subtraction problems and use a calculator when necessary.

An infant or toddler ready for kindergarten must also be able to identify his/her own address and state of residency, describe other places in the world, as well as discuss similarities among people nearby and far.

An individual ready for kindergarten must also possess the ability to manage himself in unfamiliar settings and appropriately respond to emotions, including frustration or disappointment without losing control. They must be able to collaborate with peers towards meeting goals.