Citations in your research paper serve to identify the source of quotes used within it, providing readers with more complete details in your Works Cited list at the end. They should be short in-text citations that direct them towards more complete information in their bibliographies at the back.
Citations can take either of two forms, parenthetical and narrative. Each style looks slightly different depending on which citation style is being utilized.
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Citing a direct quote
Though paraphrasing is always preferred over direct quotations in academic writing, sometimes using a direct quote may be necessary – either because its exact words are integral to your argument, or you simply cannot paraphrase the material effectively. When doing so, always follow the rules for citing direct quotes properly.
Citing direct quotes depends on the style you use; for instance, APA requires including author last name, year of publication, and page number as part of a direct quotation citation. You could also add short parenthetical citations citing them within text instead of at the end of paragraphs.
For papers written in APA style, double quotation marks should always surround direct quotes of 40 words or less; quotes exceeding this length should be placed as free-standing blocks and without quotation marks; long quotes should indent their first line 1/2 inch from the left margin, and use periods after direct quotations as it becomes part of your text.
Any minor modifications to a direct quotation that do not change its meaning are allowed, while using three-dot ellipsis points (three dot) as needed to remove text from direct quotations – however it should not be used at either of its beginning or ending points.
Direct quotes are frequently employed in academic writing to illustrate concepts and ideas, though how you use them varies based on your discipline and subject area. To find out how other academics use quotes in your field, consult your course handbook, speak to tutors, read work from that field, as well as familiarizing yourself with quoting, paraphrasing, and citing techniques.
When including short quotes in your paper, it is imperative that they are properly cited. Citations should include information such as author name and year of publication as well as page numbers if available. In-text citations provide readers with additional details about the work being cited while also helping guide them toward your full Works Cited list at the end of the paper.
Direct quotes should generally only be included occasionally in an essay as they occupy valuable space and can detract from its impact. However, if the quotation is particularly important and difficult to paraphrase without losing meaning, consider including it in your paper. When quoting lengthy passages using block quotes; they begin on a new line indented one inch or ten spaces from the left margin and should have double quotation marks for clarity.
Elipses are also useful tools to avoid overusing direct quotes and make the text easier to read. However, do not start or end a direct quote with an ellipsis as this would be considered improper and could confuse your reader.
Whenever citing from electronic sources, when possible it would be preferable to indicate where they can be found rather than listing page numbers. When dealing with online works you can refer directly to sections, paragraphs or URLs; alternatively in-text citations should be brief and included parenthetically within text; for instance: “According to Gross, language not only determines our thinking and perception, but also shapes it”.
If the author’s name has already been mentioned in your text, there is no need to repeat it in your in-text citation. Furthermore, avoid placing punctuation within closing single or double quotation marks unless part of what was being quoted (e.g. citing according to Smith: “Here’s a direct quote” 8 and 22 respectively); in which case use the first word(s) of title followed by date of publication as in-text citation.
Whenever including long quotes in your paper, the appropriate format must be utilized. When adding short quotations within double quotation marks or block quotes (depending on whether your paper follows Modern Language Association (MLA) or American Psychological Association (APA) style), be sure to refer back to either your course handbook or tutor for advice on which style best applies.
Integrating direct quotes into your writing can be an invaluable way of reinforcing your argument and showing that you have engaged with ideas presented elsewhere. But be careful: use direct quotations only when necessary and when they contribute something unique to the argument presented in your paper or article. When using them, be sure they reflect both your voice and fit within its context – do not force quotes upon yourself just for the sake of it!
Long quotes should begin with a sentence ending with a colon, followed by author name and page number in parentheses. If your source does not contain page numbers, the American Psychological Association suggests including section names or other information to help readers locate it (for instance: “Art is History’s nostalgia; it prefers thatched roofs to concrete factories and huge churches over bleached villages”) (“Omeros,” Book 3, Chapter X, Lines 8-9).
Long quotations should be indented from the left margin and spaced out in both directions before and after. Shorten it if necessary or if its length becomes unwieldy for your paper; when cutting something out entirely, indicate its absence by adding an ellipsis mark (…) before it. To emphasize certain words or phrases more strongly, use square brackets around it.
In general, full passage citations should appear in your Works Cited list at the end of your paper. However, if the author has already been mentioned within your text or it is clear from context which work you are citing, consider including an in-text citation instead.
Direct quotes can add emphasis, analysis, and evidence to any essay; however, their use should be restricted as too many could detract from your ideas and cause unnecessary distraction. It would also be wise not to use more than one quote per paragraph.
Citing direct quotes in an essay requires including exact words from your source, punctuation, and an introduction. Format will differ depending on whether your essay follows MLA or APA style; both require using double quotation marks around quoted material.
When citing short direct quotes, parenthetical citation should follow directly after the closing quotation mark. This allows you to integrate it seamlessly into your writing without interruption from an interruption caused by quotations. When using direct quotes, ensure you choose an appropriate verb; choosing an incorrect verb could make all the difference between clear writing and unclear writing; such words as “argued”, “claimed”, and “stated” may convey different tones altogether.
Long direct quotations typically exceed 40 words in length and should be presented in a free-standing block of typewritten lines indented half an inch from the left margin, and with double spacing maintained throughout their text block and ending with an end quotation mark and period at either end.
If you are citing an item that does not appear in your works-cited list, it is essential to include its complete title when in-text citing. In its place, use one, two, or three words from the title instead; do not include initial articles like “A,” “An,” and “The.” Moreover, its formatting should resemble that of your works-cited list.
When citing directly from books, magazines, or journal articles it is essential that the full title be included as part of your in-text citation in order for readers to easily locate it in your works-cited list. If available online then also include its URL within your in-text citation.