3 Methods of Investigation

Scientific investigation is a systematic method used by scientists to uncover explanations for natural phenomena. It involves making observations, creating hypotheses and predictions, conducting an experiment, and making adjustments based on any outcomes from previous efforts.

Experimental investigations typically occur in laboratory settings. They usually utilize controlled independent variables and dependent variables; for instance, students might test whether a toy car would travel faster on a ramp.


Scientific investigation is a practice which employs objective observations and data analysis to produce answers to hypotheses. It has become popular with students learning science as well as professional researchers across fields like biology, chemistry, physics and geology. Scientific investigations involve several steps starting with observations which lead to questions, then predictions and finally evidence to either support or disprove them.

Descriptive research typically involves observing groups of people in their natural surroundings or reviewing results of an experiment, providing answers for what, where, when and how of phenomena but not why; alternative methodologies should be utilized instead for this research type. It can also serve psychologists, sociologists, market researchers who wish to gain an understanding of how people behave in everyday situations.

Observational research is an approach to descriptive investigation that involves watching subjects without interfering in any way, without interfering in their actions or interactions with each other. While observing subjects is a great way to gain unbiased data on individuals, its implementation may be hindered by factors such as Hawthorne effect and participant bias – these issues should be mitigated through measures like restricting participant numbers or locations as well as making sure to observe subjects without altering results skewing their outcomes. To prevent these complications from arising, researchers should try mitigate these problems by restricting participants as well as carefully selecting locations or making sure to observe subjects without altering results skewing results by carefully selecting participant numbers while also monitoring observations in ways which don’t alter results by carefully selecting locations as well as making sure observing subjects without altering results skew results or alteration.

Research using this methodology is particularly suitable for system sciences like geology, astronomy or ecology; it allows researchers to investigate patterns in the behavior of subjects. By looking for these patterns they can create models of those topics to explain why they act this way – like St Elmo’s fire burning hot.

An effective method for describing groups, such as different generations within one population, research can provide invaluable insights into individual behavior and motivation, providing marketers with powerful data-driven advertising strategies that resonate with consumers. For instance, using this research you could discover why Gen Z differs from Millennials in New York City which could then guide decisions regarding where and when your ads should appear.


Comparative investigation allows scientists to study an identical natural system without changing any variables, while still collecting observations about what they see and describing what is observed. They then use these observations to generate questions that they can test with experiments; often used for discovering relationships among various factors; for instance observing two streams at different conditions–for instance one year in a forest and then another in clear-cut area. After collecting the results they compare them against one another in order to see whether there exists an association between forested areas and clear-cut areas.

Scientific investigations enable researchers to gain an in-depth knowledge of natural phenomena and use that understanding to address real world issues. Investigations typically start with observation and end with making predictions from those observations; furthermore they collect evidence from various sources either supporting or disproving those predictions; as scientists often follow a prescribed protocol when collecting data, so others may replicate experiments and verify its accuracy.

Experimental investigations differ from descriptive investigations in that they aim to prove a hypothesis. Hypotheses typically provide an explanation for a particular process or condition – for example “If I apply fertilizer to this plant in this soil and with this amount of water, then its growth will exceed that of another.” To ensure accurate comparisons and ensure reliable outcomes, experimental investigations typically occur in laboratories where researchers can effectively control all variables involved and ensure accurate comparisons.

Students studying science, technology and mathematics explore both natural world and manmade systems through investigations in science classes. Investigations play a central role in their education – pupils must understand different forms of investigation as they relate to each other and design experiments that produce reliable evidence for them to make conclusions on. Students need to state a problem, predict outcomes, collect data by observing or experimenting and analyze this data before drawing their own conclusions from it all.


Scientific investigation is an essential process that helps scientists find explanations for natural phenomena. It requires a methodical and structured approach to observation and experimentation that minimizes personal biases while collecting accurate data sets. Furthermore, an objective approach is key in reaching impartial conclusions based on empirical evidence.

At the core of all scientific investigations is making observations and asking questions – known as scientific inquiries. Once questions have been generated, researchers conduct background research before formulating hypotheses as possible answers for scientific queries; but any hypothesis must be grounded in scientific knowledge, be logical, falsifiable (ie: you could make observations which disproved it), and falsifiable.

Comparative investigations involve scientists collecting information about different organisms or objects under identical conditions in order to make comparisons between them. An example would be monitoring boiling points of three liquids or using a microscope to study two insects’ external anatomy – these would both count as comparative investigations.

An experimental investigation differs from comparative investigations in that one specific variable is actively altered and controlled by the scientist in order to demonstrate a cause-and-effect relationship between one factor (for instance fertilization of plants with and without), and their rate of growth. A control group without experimental treatments such as these would serve as an ideal comparison group in such an investigation – for instance comparing growth rates when with or without fertilizers applied (the dependent variable being growth measured by a scientist while its independent variable would be applied amounts of fertilizers applied over time).

Experiments allow scientists to test the efficacy of theories they’ve devised through experimentation. If an experiment proves inconclusive to an existing scientific theory, that theory may need to be revised or abandoned altogether; conversely if its results confirm it further gains acceptance within scientific communities. As such, conducting scientific investigations is crucial in creating knowledge and furthering science – this process of investigation being what gives science its value for humanity.

Physical Surveillance

Physical surveillance investigations involve covert (commonly referred to as covert) or undercover observations of suspect activities throughout their day, enabling investigators to observe patterns of behavior and detect anomalies. It is commonly used when investigating theft cases or crimes committed against either property or persons. Investigators usually employ multiple investigative methods and often collect audio and video evidence.

Investigators conducting physical surveillance investigations begin by gathering as much information on their subject as possible through interviews and background checks with family, friends and coworkers of both subject as well as potential suspects. With this knowledge in hand, investigators can gain a clearer picture of motive behind crime as well as potential suspects for their investigation.

Investigators select their surveillance techniques carefully. Physical surveillance techniques involve setting up in one location and following someone by foot or vehicle – often more effective than solely using technology for surveillance. Investigators may also record public activities of suspects such as social media posts and forum participation, for further evidence gathering purposes.

Investigative tactics depend on the type of case they’re working on and suspect behavior. Some investigations, like those related to disease outbreaks, require investigators to use narrow definitions for illness to ensure those meeting these criteria truly have it; hence why investigations into new diseases or syndromes often focus on healthcare practitioners and facilities such as hospitals or laboratories as their starting point.

Electronic surveillance is often the go-to investigative method when the target of an investigation cannot be observed in person by investigators, yet requires stringent legal protection to avoid abuses and invasions of privacy. Such surveillance requires close oversight from courts and authorities alike in order to limit abuses. For instance, most countries recognize an individual’s right to privacy in their home as a fundamental human right. Therefore authorities are forbidden from entering private spaces without legal justification and warrant. Technology also allows investigators to monitor someone remotely which reduces physical observer needs significantly.